New banana variety to keep pests at bay by KALRO

BANANA FARMING

Banana originated from southeast of Asia

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANA

It is a herbaceous plant non-woody

The fruit develops through parthenocarpy

The roots arise from underground rhizobium

ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

Altitude 0-1800 m A.S.L

Temperature 20⁰c-30⁰c

Bananas are very sensitive to low

temperatura

Soils – the soils should be deep and well

fertile

Soil PH 5.5-6.5

Rainfall optimum 1000-2500 well distributed during the growing period

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VARITIES OF BANANA

COOKING

Uganda

green

RIPENING

Sukari

BREWING

bokoboko

Giant cavedish

Shirembe

kisumbi

gross miche

Nusu ngombe

PROPAGATION

Bananas are propagated vegetatively using

■ Suckers

■ Tissue culture

FIELD ESTABLISHEMNT
Land preparation

Spacing ranges from 5.4 by 5.4 m depending on the variety

Preparation of holes

Dig 0.9 m by 0.9m by 0.9 m

Separate the top soil from the sub soil

Mix the top soil with 2 debes of farmyard manure and 250g of double super phosphate per hole return the mix back to the hole

planting

planting should be done at the onset of rains

the suckers should be planted at the center of the hole and firm well

FIELD MAINTANCE PRACTICES

☐ Weed control

■ Establish wind brakes around the orchard

■ Carry out mulching

Pruning

Prun 4-5 suckers per stool as follows

*l 4

First sucker

should be fruiting or almost fruiting

Second sucker

Just about to flower

Third sucker

It should be 34 grown

Fourth sucker

It should be 1/2 grown

Firth sucker

It should be 60 – 100cm tall

■ Removal of dry leaves

■ Top dressing

Banana is a gross feeder since it requires large amount of nutrients

Apply

1.2 debes of farmyard manure per stool

/year

2. 113g of CAN per stool /year

Apply 1000kg/ha of sulphate of potash

SPECIAL OPERATIONS OR PRACTICES ON BANANAS

Propping

This involves use of a forked pole to support the heavy bunch (Y)

■ Removal of male buds

This increases the bunch weight by 2-5%

■ Bagging

Involves use of a plastic and transparent bag which is used to cover the bunch after maturity

The bag must be perforated for proper

aeration

It protects the bunch from sun burn

Pest and disease attack

Rodent attack and also protect the bunch from cold

De-handing

Involves the removal of the last and very
small undeveloped fingers

■ De-flowering

Involves the removal of dry remains of the inflorescence at the end of each finger

Earthing up

Protects the banana planting from weed damage

Pest and disease

Pest

Banana weevil

Symptoms

the larvae feeds inside the vascular bundle making irregular tunnels inside the stem

leaves turn yellow dry and die prematurely

control

use clean and healthy planting materials

before planting the sucker deep, it in an instectidol solution before planting

Nematodes

They affect the roots in such away that they start rotting

The leaves turn yellow they dry and also die prematurely

Control

Thrim the roots before planting

Carry out soil fumigation to kill nematodes also soil analysis

Use healthy and clean planting materials

DISEASES

CIGAR END ROT

IT is a fungal disease which affects the flowers and late on penetrates into the ovary

It is favoured by high relative humidity

The tip of the finger undergoes a dry rot with unharshy appearance that looks like a burning cigar

Control

Carry out de flowering

Pruning to reduce relative humidity

Panama disease

it is a fungal disease that is soilable

leaves turn yellow and collapse while still green affected by plants fail to produce normal fruits and die before the bunch is well developed

control

use resistant variety giant

maintain field hygiene within the orchard

mulch 30cm away from the stool

MATURITY INDICES

They from angular to round

HARVESTING

Bananas are ready for harvesting 9-15 months depending on the variety after planting

Cut well developed bunches very carefully while minimizing any mechanical damage

The entire stem should be cut and uprooted

at the ground level

YIELDS

Bananas yields range from 17-20 tonnes per

ha/year

Economic lifespan 8-10 years

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